In all countries the main competition was domestic, not foreign.
They have two option full or partial refund. They never do any of these. It is very simple scenario of online buying. I sent many messages to seller but they did not respond so I raised dispute and next day I got response from seller Carina Li. With lots of communication she got agree that I will return the mobile I received and she will to send new mobile. Once I returned that mobile, its been 6 months and I never got either new mobile or my money back.
As I created dispute so AliExpress decision came in sellers favor in fact just decision nothing like why they are taking this decision and ZERO refund to me. Their customer support and their dispute team seat in corner and take what ever decision they want to make. No question to seller why they sent used and not working mobile. That is all and decision is went in their favor.
Once you do buying with big money, this is their usual traits. I got to know from couple of source that they frequently do such fraud but I did not believe them and here is the result. This is the sequence they follow: You will finally waste your money and time. This is how they protect seller and their commission, NOT the buyer protection.
I am open to share all the details and communication that happened between seller, AliExpress and me just send message to me to who so ever interested. Folks just protect your self from such fraud by AliExpress and Seller. The worse part of this is their Customer Support and they are always in half sleep. What you ask, and what they understand just god knows. Well, its a lesson learned. Moved back to our USA based online seller and giving little extra money to protect my money, toll free number to reach them if there is any problem with delivered item, great customer support and peace of mind with reliable guarantee and warranty.
Next update as of Aug21, Now its more than 20 days are over and nothing had happened. AliExpress appeal is meaning less. Be careful to buy on Aliexpress, they have NOT buy protection!!! I contacted the seller many time and Aliexpress by chat for a refund, but nothing happened. I ordered large pants, but I was sent a pair that were a similar to a small child size pants. I sent the seller proof that he had the wrong sizes for US large.
The seller was rude and had no customer service skill. So keep these 2 things in mind: When you buy on Aliexpress be prepared for rude sellers, no customer service, 2.
If you want to return any items from the USA, the sellers do not provide free return shipping. I bought Order from Aliexpress, an electric hot air gun. I took pictures of the wrongly sent product, noting the label and incorrect plug. Seller admitted that they no longer sold the US plug product. But they had not changed the website. Since I am an A4 rated member, having bought thousands of items from Aliexpress, but almost all of these were small and inexpensive items.
I will never deal with them again!!! They did not respond. In my opinion the buyer protection does not work outside China. Even if the item is incorrect or defective the refund is predicated on you paying tracked shipping of the returned item. Ebay and Amazon make seller pay return shipping on bad items. They ship to you cheap bulk and subsidized but In most cases the cost of tracked return shipping of a single item is more than the cost of the item.
If you wait until mid-August, the ATO will pre-fill your tax return with most information from employers, banks, government agencies and other third parties. You just have to check the information, enter any deductions you have, and submit.
If you lodge your tax return before the information is pre-filled, here's a list of common types of income that must be declared on your tax return:.
Visit the ATO's website for more information on income you must declare. When completing your tax return, you're entitled to claim deductions for some expenses, most of which are directly related to earning your income called 'work-related expenses'. A deduction reduces your taxable income, and means you pay less tax. They have also created a series of fact sheets explaining what expenses are tax deductible for specific occupations, including teachers, hospitality workers and tradies.
The tool allows you to record deductions including work-related expenses, gifts and donations, interest and dividends. It also lets you store photos of receipts and record car trips. The myDeductions app can be used by individuals and sole traders sole traders can use it to keep track of business income and at tax time you can send your deductions to your tax agent or upload them directly to myTax. The ATO is focused on helping taxpayers get their deductions right, but they're also on the lookout for red flags that identify people who are doing the wrong thing.
Test your understanding of income you must declare and what you can and can't claim with the ATO's tax time quiz. You can lodge your tax return online using myTax - it's quick, easy, safe and secure. Visit the ATO website to find out how to lodge online. Check your super while you are logged into MyGov. In some jurisdictions or regions, legal definitions of retail specify that at least 80 percent of sales activity must be to end-users.
Retailing often occurs in retail stores or service establishments, but may also occur through direct selling such as through vending machines, door-to-door sales or electronic channels. Retail service providers include retail banking, tourism, insurance, private healthcare, private education, private security firms, legal firms, publishers, public transport and others. For example, a tourism provider might have a retail division that books travel and accommodation for consumers plus a wholesale division that purchases blocks of accommodation, hospitality, transport and sightseeing which are subsequently packaged into a holiday tour for sale to retail travel agents.
Some retailers badge their stores as "wholesale outlets" offering "wholesale prices. Different jurisdictions set parameters for the ratio of consumer to business sales that define a retail business. Retail markets have existed since ancient times. Archaeological evidence for trade, probably involving barter systems, dates back more than 10, years. As civilizations grew, barter was replaced with retail trade involving coinage. These markets typically occupied a place in the town's centre.
Surrounding the market, skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers, occupied permanent premises in alleys that led to the open market-place. These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but also prepared goods for sale on market days. The latter was a vast expanse, comprising multiple buildings with shops on four levels. The Phoenicians , noted for their seafaring skills, plied their ships across the Mediterranean, becoming a major trading power by the 9th century BCE.
The Phoenicians imported and exported wood, textiles, glass and produce such as wine, oil, dried fruit and nuts. Their trading skills necessitated a network of colonies along the Mediterranean coast, stretching from modern day Crete through to Tangiers and onto Sardinia  The Phoenicians not only traded in tangible goods, but were also instrumental in transporting culture.
The Phoenician's extensive trade networks necessitated considerable book-keeping and correspondence. In around BCE, the Phoenicians developed a consonantal alphabet which was much easier to learn that the complex scripts used in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.
Phoenician traders and merchants were largely responsible for spreading their alphabet around the region. In the Graeco-Roman world, the market primarily served the local peasantry. Local producers, who were generally poor, would sell small surpluses from their individual farming activities, purchase minor farm equipment and also buy a few luxuries for their homes.
Major producers such as the great estates were sufficiently attractive for merchants to call directly at their farm-gates, obviating the producers' need to attend local markets. The very wealthy landowners managed their own distribution, which may have involved exporting and importing.
The nature of export markets in antiquity is well documented in ancient sources and archaeological case studies. The rise of retailing and marketing in England and Europe has been extensively studied, but less is known about developments elsewhere.
In Medieval England and Europe, relatively few permanent shops were to be found; instead customers walked into the tradesman's workshops where they discussed purchasing options directly with tradesmen.
In 13th century London, mercers and haberdashers were known to exist and grocers sold "miscellaneous small wares as well as spices and medicines" but fish and other perishables were sold through markets, costermongers, hucksters, peddlers or other type of itinerant vendor.
In the more populous cities, a small number of shops were beginning to emerge by the 13th century. In Chester , a medieval covered shopping arcade represented a major innovation that attracted shoppers from many miles around. Known as " The Rows" this medieval shopping arcade is believed to be the first of its kind in Europe. Medieval shops had little in common with their modern equivalent.
As late as the 16th century, London's shops were described as little more than "rude booths" and their owners "bawled as loudly as the itinerants.
The shutters were designed to open so that the top portion formed a canopy while the bottom was fitted with legs so that it could serve as a shopboard. Glazed windows, which were rare during the medieval period, and did not become commonplace until the eighteenth century, meant that shop interiors were dark places.
Outside the markets, goods were rarely out on display and the service counter was unknown. Shoppers had relatively few opportunities to inspect the merchandise prior to consumption. Many stores had openings onto the street from which they served customers.
Outside the major cities, most consumable purchases were made through markets or fairs. Markets were held daily in the more populous towns and cities or weekly in the more sparsely populated rural districts. Markets sold fresh produce; fruit, vegetables, baked goods, meat, poultry, fish and some ready to eat foodstuffs; while fairs operated on a periodic cycle and were almost always associated with a religious festival.
Market towns dotted the medieval European landscape while itinerant vendors supplied less populated areas or hard-to-reach districts. Peddlers and other itinerant vendors operated alongside other types of retail for centuries.
Blintiff has investigated the early Medieval networks of market towns across Europe, and suggests that by the 12th century there was an upsurge in the number of market towns and the emergence of merchant circuits as traders bulked up surpluses from smaller regional, different day markets and resold them at the larger centralised market towns. The Grand Bazaar in Istanbul is often cited as the world's oldest continuously-operating market; its construction began in The Spanish conquistadors wrote glowingly of markets in the Americas.
In the 15th century the Mexica Aztec market of Tlatelolco was the largest in all the Americas. English market towns were regulated from a relatively early period.
The English monarchs awarded a charter to local Lords to create markets and fairs for a town or village. This charter would grant the lords the right to take tolls and also afford some protection from rival markets. For example, once a chartered market was granted for specific market days, a nearby rival market could not open on the same days. Purchase decisions were based on purchase criteria such as consumers' perceptions of the range, quality, and price of goods.
This informed decisions about where to make their purchases and which markets were superior. Braudel and Reynold have made a systematic study of these European market towns between the thirteenth and fifteenth century.
Their investigation shows that in regional districts markets were held once or twice a week while daily markets were common in larger cities. Gradually over time, permanent shops with regular trading days began to supplant the periodic markets, while peddlers filled in the gaps in distribution. The physical market was characterised by transactional exchange and the economy was characterised by local trading. English essayist, Joseph Addison , writing in , described the exotic origin of produce available to English society in the following terms:.
He found that there were many different types of reseller operating out of the markets. For example, in the dairy trade, cheese and butter was sold by the members of two craft guilds i. Resellers and direct sellers increased the number of sellers, thus increasing competition, to the benefit of consumers.
Direct sellers, who brought produce from the surrounding countryside, sold their wares through the central market place and priced their goods at considerably lower rates than cheesemongers.
By the 17th century, permanent shops with more regular trading hours were beginning to supplant markets and fairs as the main retail outlet. Provincial shopkeepers were active in almost every English market town. These shopkeepers sold general merchandise, much like a contemporary convenience store or a general store. For example, William Allen, a mercer in Tamworth who died in , sold spices alongside furs and fabrics. His autobiography reveals that he spent most of his time preparing products for sale at the central market, which brought an influx of customers into town.
As the number of shops grew, they underwent a transformation. The trappings of a modern shop, which had been entirely absent from the sixteenth and early seventeenth century store, gradually made way for store interiors and shopfronts that are more familiar to modern shoppers. Prior to the eighteenth century, the typical retail store had no counter, display cases, chairs, mirrors, changing-rooms, etc.
However, the opportunity for the customer to browse merchandise, touch and feel products began to be available, with retail innovations from the late 17th and early 18th centuries. English commentators pointed to the speed at which glazing was installed, Daniel Defoe, writing in , noted that "Never was there such painting and guildings, such sashings and looking-glasses as the shopkeepers as there is now.
Outside the major metropolitan cities, few stores could afford to serve one type of clientele exclusively. However, gradually retail shops introduced innovations that would allow them to separate wealthier customers from the "riff raff.
This allowed the sale of goods to the common people, without encouraging them to come inside. Another solution, that came into vogue from the late sixteenth century was to invite favoured customers into a back-room of the store, where goods were permanently on display.
Yet another technique that emerged around the same time was to hold a showcase of goods in the shopkeeper's private home for the benefit of wealthier clients. Samuel Pepys, for example, writing in , describes being invited to the home of a retailer to view a wooden jack. Savitt has argued that by the eighteenth century, American merchants, who had been operating as importers and exporters, began to specialise in either wholesale or retail roles.
They tended not to specialise in particular types of merchandise, often trading as general merchants, selling a diverse range of product types. These merchants were concentrated in the larger cities. They often provided high levels of credit financing for retail transactions. By the late eighteenth century, grand shopping arcades began to emerge across Europe and in the Antipodes. A shopping arcade refers to a multiple-vendor space, operating under a covered roof. Typically, the roof was constructed of glass to allow for natural light and to reduce the need for candles or electric lighting.
Some of the earliest examples of shopping arcade appeared in Paris, due its lack of pavement for pedestrians. Retailers, eager to attract window shoppers by providing a shopping environment away from the filthy streets, began to construct rudimentary arcades. Opening in , the Coliseé , situated on the Champs Elysee, consisted of three arcades, each with ten shops, all running off a central ballroom.
For Parisians, the location was seen as too remote and the arcade closed within two years of opening. However, prices were never a deterrent, as these new arcades came to be the place to shop and to be seen. Arcades offered shoppers the promise of an enclosed space away from the chaos that characterised the noisy, dirty streets; a warm, dry space away from the elements, and a safe-haven where people could socialise and spend their leisure time.
As thousands of glass covered arcades spread across Europe, they became grander and more ornately decorated. By the mid nineteenth century, they had become prominent centres of fashion and social life. Promenading in these arcades became a popular nineteenth century pass-time for the emerging middle classes. The Illustrated Guide to Paris of summarized the appeal of arcades in the following description:. The Palais-Royal, which opened to Parisians in and became one of the most important marketplaces in Paris, is generally regarded as the earliest example in the grand shopping arcades.
The area boasted some boutiques, cafés, salons, hair salons, bookshops, museums, and numerous refreshment kiosks as well as two theatres. The retail outlets specialised in luxury goods such as fine jewellery, furs, paintings and furniture designed to appeal to the wealthy elite.
Retailers operating out of the Palais complex were among the first in Europe to abandon the system of bartering, and adopt fixed-prices thereby sparing their clientele the hassle of bartering. Stores were fitted with long glass exterior windows which allowed the emerging middle-classes to window shop and indulge in fantasies, even when they may not have been able to afford the high retail prices. Thus, the Palais-Royal became one of the first examples of a new style of shopping arcade, frequented by both the aristocracy and the middle classes.
It developed a reputation as being a site of sophisticated conversation, revolving around the salons, cafés, and bookshops, but also became a place frequented by off-duty soldiers and was a favourite haunt of prostitutes, many of whom rented apartments in the building. Shopping arcades were the precursor to the modern shopping mall. While the arcades were the province of the bourgeoisie, a new type of retail venture emerged to serve the needs of the working poor.
John Stuart Mill wrote about the rise of the co-operative retail store, which he witnessed first-hand in the mid-nineteenth century. Stuart Mill locates these co-operative stores within a broader co-operative movement which was prominent in the industrial city of Manchester and in the counties of Yorkshire and Lancashire.
Buyer and seller meet as friends; there is no overreaching on one side, and no suspicion on the other These crowds of humble working men, who never knew before when they put good food in their mouths, whose every dinner was adulterated, whose shoes let in the water a month too soon, whose waistcoats shone with devil's dust, and whose wives wore calico that would not wash, now buy in the markets like millionaires, and as far as pureness of food goes, live like lords.
The modern era of retailing is defined as the period from the industrial revolution to the 21st-century. The term, "department store" originated in America. In 19th century England, these stores were known as emporia or warehouse shops. Many of the early department stores were more than just a retail emporium; rather they were venues where shoppers could spend their leisure time and be entertained. Some department stores offered reading rooms, art galleries and concerts.
Most department stores had tea-rooms or dining rooms and offered treatment areas where ladies could indulge in a manicure. The fashion show, which originated in the US in around , became a staple feature event for many department stores and celebrity appearances were also used to great effect.
Themed events featured wares from foreign shores, exposing shoppers to the exotic cultures of the Orient and Middle-East. During this period, retailers worked to develop modern retail marketing practices. Pioneering merchants who contributed to modern retail marketing and management methods include: Retail, using mail order, came of age during the midth century. Although catalogue sales had been used since the 15th century, this method of retailing was confined to a few industries such as the sale of books and seeds.
However, improvements in transport and postal services, led several entrepreneurs on either side of the Atlantic to experiment with catalogue sales. In , Welsh draper Pryce Pryce-Jones sent catalogues to clients who could place orders for flannel clothing which was then despatched by post. This enabled Pryce-Jones to extend his client base across Europe.
He also devised the catch-phrase "satisfaction guaranteed or your money back" which was implemented in Edward Filene, a proponent of the scientific approach to retail management, developed the concept of the automatic bargain Basement. If the merchandise remained unsold after two months, it was given to charity. He instituted a profit sharing program, a minimum wage for women, a hour work week, health clinics and paid vacations. He also played an important role in encouraging the Filene Cooperative Association, "perhaps the earliest American company union".
Through this channel he engaged constructively with his employees in collective bargaining and arbitration processes. In the post-war period, an American architect, Victor Gruen developed a concept for a shopping mall; a planned, self-contained shopping complex complete with an indoor plaza, statues, planting schemes, piped music, and car-parking.
Gruen's vision was to create a shopping atmosphere where people felt so comfortable, they would spend more time in the environment, thereby enhancing opportunities for purcahsing. The first of these malls opened at Northland Mall near Detroit in He went on to design some 50 such malls. Due to the success of the mall concept, Gruen was described as "the most influential architect of the twentieth century by a journalist in the New Yorker. Throughout the twentieth century, a trend towards larger store footprints became discernible.
The average size of a U. As the 21st century takes shape, some indications suggest that large retail stores have come under increasing pressure from online sales models and that reductions in store size are evident. The distinction between "strategic" and "managerial" decision-making is commonly used to distinguish "two phases having different goals and based on different conceptual tools. Strategic planning concerns the choice of policies aiming at improving the competitive position of the firm, taking account of challenges and opportunities proposed by the competitive environment.
On the other hand, managerial decision-making is focused on the implementation of specific targets. In retailing, the strategic plan is designed to set out the vision and provide guidance for retail decision-makers and provide an outline of how the product and service mix will optimize customer satisfaction.
As part of the strategic planning process, it is customary for strategic planners to carry out a detailed environmental scan which seeks to identify trends and opportunities in the competitive environment, market environment, economic environment and statutory-political environment. The retail strategy is normally devised or reviewed every 3— 5 years by the chief executive officer. The strategic retail analysis typically includes following elements: At the conclusion of the retail analysis, the retail marketers should have a clear idea of which groups of customers are to be the target of marketing activities.
Research studies suggest that there is a strong relationship between a store's positioning and the socio-economic status of customers. In a highly competitive market, the retail strategy sets up long-term sustainability. It focuses on customer relationships, stressing the importance of added value, customer satisfaction and highlights how the store's market positioning appeals to targeted groups of customers.
See also product management ; promotion mix ; marketing mix ; price ; servicescapes and retail design. Once the strategic plan is in place, retail managers turn to the more managerial aspects of planning. A retail mix is devised for the purpose of coordinating day-to-day tactical decisions. The retail marketing mix typically consists of six broad decision layers including product decisions, place decisions, promotion, price, personnel and presentation also known as physical evidence.
A number of scholars have argued for an expanded marketing, mix with the inclusion of two new Ps, namely, Personnel and Presentation since these contribute to the customer's unique retail experience and are the principal basis for retail differentiation. Yet other scholars argue that the Retail Format i.
The primary product-related decisions facing the retailer are the product assortment what product lines, how many lines and which brands to carry ; the type of customer service high contact through to self-service and the availability of support services e.
These decisions depend on careful analysis of the market, demand, competition as well as the retailer's skills and expertise. The term product assortment refers to the combination of both product breadth and depth. The main characteristics of a company's product assortment are: For a retailer, finding the right balance between breadth and depth can be a key to success. An average supermarket might carry 30,—60, different product lines product length or assortment , but might carry up to different types of toothpaste product depth.
Costco, for example, carries 5, different lines while Aldi carries just 1, lines per store. Large assortments offer consumers many benefits, notably increased choice and the possibility that the consumer will be able to locate the ideal product. However, for the retailer, larger assortments incur costs in terms of record-keeping, managing inventory, pricing and risks associated with wastage due to spoiled, shopworn or unsold stock.
Carrying more stock also exposes the retailer to higher risks in terms of slow-moving stock and lower sales per square foot of store space. On the other hand, reducing the number of product lines can generate cost savings through increased stock turnover by eliminating slow-moving lines, fewer stockouts, increased bargaining power with suppliers, reduced costs associated with wastage and carrying inventory, and higher sales per square foot which means more efficient space utilisation.
When determining the number of product lines to carry, the retailer must consider the store type, store's physical storage capacity, the perishability of items, expected turnover rates for each line and the customer's needs and expectations. Customer service is the "sum of acts and elements that allow consumers to receive what they need or desire from [the] retail establishment.
In addition, the retailer needs to make decisions about sales support such as customer delivery and after sales customer care. Retail stores often seek to differentiate along customer service lines. For example, some department stores offer the services of a stylist ; a fashion advisor, to assist customers selecting a fashionable wardrobe for the forthcoming season, while smaller boutiques may allow regular customers to take goods home on approval , enabling the customer to try out goods before making the final purchase.
The variety of supporting services offered is known as the service type.
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